Regardless of your political views, there's no doubt that history was made this week in the United States. As noted in an article in New Scientist today, President Elect Barack Obama's platform includes a pledge to lead a new era in scientific innovation in America. According to his comprehensive Science and Technology Policy (pdf), submitted in September, this would be achieved by doubling the federal investment in basic research and by addressing the "grand challenges" of the 21st century. What does this mean to you? What is the #1 challenge you'd like to see addressed as part of this initiative? Tell us in the comments.